Christianity Knowledge Base
Old Testament and Tanakh
Jewish, Protestant, Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, and Oriental Orthodox
Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, and Oriental Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox
Russian and Oriental Orthodox
Oriental Orthodox

The Old Testament is the first division of the Christian Biblical canon, which is based primarily upon the 24 Books of the Hebrew Bible, a collection of ancient religious Hebrew and occasionally Aramaic writings by the Israelites. The second division of Christian Bibles is the New Testament, written in Koine Greek.

There are differences between the Hebrew Scriptures for Judaism and Christianity. Jews number the books in Hebrew Scriptures as 24, while Christians number the books in Hebrew Scriptures as 39. This is because the Jews consider the Books of Samuel, Books of Kings, and Books of Chronicles to form one book each, group the 12 minor prophets into one book, and also consider the Book of Ezra and Book of Nehemiah to be a single book. The Roman Catholic, Oriental Orthodox and Eastern Orthodox include books removed by Martin Luther, called the deuterocannonical books, which Protestants exclude as apocryphal. The basis for these books is found in the early Koine Greek Septuagint translation of the Hebrew Scriptures/Bible. This translation was widely used by the early Christians and is the one most often quoted (300 of 350 quotations including many of Jesus's own words) in the New Testament when it quotes the Old Testament.

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