Judeo-Christian (or Judaeo-Christian) is a term used to describe the body of concepts and values which are thought to be held in common by Judaism and Christianity, and typically considered (along with classical Greco-Roman civilization) a fundamental basis for Western legal codes and moral values.
Source of the term Edit
Christianity emerged from Judaism in the century after the death of Herod the Great. Christians brought from Judaism its scriptures; fundamental doctrines such as monotheism; the belief in a Messiah, a term that is more commonly known as Christ (χριστοςchristos in Greek) and means 'anointed one'; form of worship, including a priesthood, concepts of sacred space and sacred time, the idea that worship here on Earth is patterned after worship in Heaven, and the use of the Psalms in community prayer. Christianity dropped some fundamental Jewish practices, among them the Jewish covenant on male circumcision and the keeping of kashrut. One of the most significant early Christian preachers, Paul of Tarsus, himself a Jew and a Roman citizen, made a point of preaching to the gentiles of the Roman Empire, contributing to the religion's spread.
The term was invented in the United States of America in an attempt to create a non-denominational religious consensus or civil religion that, by embracing Judaism, avoided the appearance of anti-Semitism. The first-known uses of the terms "Judæo-Christian" and "Judaeo-Christianity", according to the Oxford English Dictionary, are 1899 and 1910 respectively. The original uses of the term have faded, and it now usually refers to a general Western religious background. The term is commonly used by historians and academics as a shorthand for the predominant religious influences upon Western culture.
There has been a lot of misinformation on this subject. Christianity did not emerge from or out of Judaism.
"The return from Babylon and the introduction of the Babylonian Talmud mark the end of Hebrewism and the beginning of Judaism."
[Rabbi Stephen F. Wise, formerly the Chief Rabbi of the United States as quoted in the article by Bertrand L. Comparet' '“The Bible is not a Jewish Book”]
“. . . Judaism . . . Pharisaism became Talmudism, Talmudism became Medieval Rabbinism, and Medieval Rabbinism became Modern Rabbinism. But throughout these changes in name . . . the spirit of the ancient Pharisees survives, unaltered . . . “
from page XXI of “Pharisees, The Sociological Background of Their Faith”, first edition. by Rabbi Louis Finkelstein, the head of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America, often referred to as “ The Vatican of Judaism “ (also quoted on page 24 of “Facts Are Facts” by Benjamin H. Freedman)
“According to the Oxford English Dictionary, Christendom existed for 1494 years before this term Judaism was even coined in English, yet modernist Christians assign this name to the ancient Israelite religion of Yahweh.”
From page 25 of JUDAISM’S STRANGE GODS by Michael A. Hoffman II, published by The Independent History and Research, Co. P.O. Box 849 Coeur d’Alene, Idaho 83816 ISBN # 0-9703784-0-8
For more information on this subject see the books: "The Truth About Judaism and Judeo-Christianity", "Judaism, Is It From The Bible", "Why", and "Christianity, the Frog In The Pot" All e-books downloads at Amazon.com and in print at lulu.com
For a systematic look at this subject see: Judaism and Christianity
Problems with the term Edit
The term Judeo-Christian has been criticized for implying more commonality than actually exists. In The Myth of the Judeo-Christian Tradition, Jewish theologian-novelist Arthur A. Cohen questions the theological appropriateness of the term and suggests that it was essentially an invention of American politics. . It has also been criticized by some for excluding or marginalizing Islam, the third major Abrahamic religion. Sometimes the terms Judeo-Islamic or Judeo-Christo-Islamic are used to more fully incorporate Islam into this umbrella.
Fundamental differences between the two religionsEdit
Judaism and Christianity have many areas of agreement, as well as sharply defined ethical and religious systems that are in some areas opposites. Generally neither Jews nor Christians want to have their distinctive traits removed by an oversimplification. Opponents of this term claim that the concept collapses these important differences, and effects a modern appropriation of Jewish identity to Christian values. They point to the traditional Christian claim that Christianity is the logical progression of, and heir to, Biblical Judaism, as precedent.
A further problem with the notion of a Judeo-Christian tradition is that in fact neither Judaism nor Christianity is monolithic. Tremendous variations occur in both religions which have influenced each other over the past 2,000 years. Moreover, Judaism and Christianity each have widely diverging views of their respective relationship to the other, and a complex joint history. So although there are popular themes, or common views, no one group, or view, can claim to speak for either religion, and each religion comprises a scattering of traditions and beliefs which vary in universality, based around a common core, rather than a definitive description. A measure of the scale of this variation, is that even internally to each religion, there exist some Jews and Christians who hold that other Jews and Christians are not in fact the same religion. The who is a Jew? article covers this for Judaism.
Despite this, the mainstream view and approach, at least in current times, is mostly peaceful living side by side, with strong inter-dialogue at many levels to reconcile past differences between the two groups. According to Jewish teaching, Christians are accepted as worshipping the same God, and likewise many Christians emphasize common historical heritage and religious continuity with the ancient spiritual lineage of the Jews.
Perceived exclusion of IslamEdit
The term Judeo-Christian is seen by some to imply a rejection of Islam, the third major religion to trace its roots to the same common culture. The term Judeo-Christian values is commonly used in the West, and many Muslim scholars view this term as emblematic of a disconnect between Western-culture Christianity and Islam. Attempts have been made to unite this split, followed closely by attempts to discredit them. The term Judeo-Christian-Islamic has been coined to describe the values shared by the common history of the three religions. This term has been used, for example, by Abrahamic faith gatherings held in various cities of the U.S., which are designed to promote mutual understanding, and have drawn the participation of Christians, Jews, and Muslims.
Others however denounce this inclusion, arguing that Islam lacks basic features in doctrine that Judaism and Christianity share, and also because they believe that Judaism and Christianity has shaped the cultural settings of Europe while Islam has been outside of this development. Others argue that this term is appropriate, since they believe all three claim monotheism and share many similar beliefs and traditions -- Christians believe in the Gospel, Jews believe in the Torah only (and not the Gospel) and do not recognize Jesus, while Muslims believe in the Torah, the Gospel and believe in Jesus. They also argue that Islam had a major influence on bringing Europe out of the Dark Ages into the Age of Enlightenment, through the culture and sciences that the Europeans learned from the Muslims during that period.
Regardless of features in common, in a practical sense, these three religions stemming from common roots, their cultures, and their mutual interactions, have together been responsible for shaping much of the modern world, so a common inclusive term for the combined traditions of all three is often seen as an appropriate umbrella term.
- Antinomianism — term used to describe those who believe that Christians are not subject to laws
- Comparing and contrasting Judaism and Christianity — defining their distinct identities
- Cultural and historical background of Jesus — perspective on the period in which the two religions began to diverge
- Judaizers — term used to describe those who believe that Christians should keep the law of Moses
- Supersessionism — the belief that Christianity has superseded Judaism
- Abrahamic religions — an umbrella term used to refer to the religions of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam as well as smaller, related religions such as Baha'i Faith and Samaritans .
- Christo-Islamic — term used to refer to common elements in Christianity and Islam
- Judeo-Christo-Islamic — there is considered a triune religious connective relationship
- Judeo-Islamic — term used to refer to the common cultural elements and backgrounds of the two religions
- Bulliet, Dick. The Case for Islamo-Christian Civilization. Columbia University Press, 2004.
- Cohen, Arthur A. The Myth of the Judeo-Christian Tradition. Harper & Row, New York, 1970.
- Hexter, J. H. The Judaeo-Christian Tradition (Second Edition). Yale University Press, 1995.
- Neusner, Jacob. Jews and Christians: The Myth of a Common Tradition. Trinity Press International, Philadelphia, 1991.
This article was forked from Wikipedia on March 25, 2006.
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